SDR-WInnComm Europe 2011 Papers and Presentations
22-24 June 2011

Comprehensive downloads:

Presentation Abstracts:

(paper and presentation download links next to presentation title where available)

Session 1A - Wireless Communication Transceivers

LTE-Advanced - What's next? (paper) (presentation)
Meik Kottkamp (Rohde-Schwarz, Germany)

From 2009 onwards commercialization of the LTE technology takes place, while a significant number of network deployments are expected in 2010/11. At the same time further enhancements of the LTE technology are worked on in order to meet ITU-Advanced requirements which will ensure that deployed LTE networks remain future proof for many more years to come. In September 2010 ITU offically acknowledged LTE-Advanced as one technology fulfilling the IMT-Advanced requirements. This talk will illustrate the improvements that have been specified throughout the 3GPP work item phase for 3GPP Release 10 features and includes an initial assessment how to verify and test these new LTE-Advanced features.

An Energy-Efficient Cross-Layer Adaptive Modulation and Coding Scheme for Software Defined Radio (paper) (presentation)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Ying Chen (University of South Australia, Australia); Linda M. Davis (University of South Australia, Australia)

In this paper, a simple and novel cross-layer adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) scheme, which increases the energy efficiency of the wireless communication system is proposed. Traditionally, AMC has been used to improve MAC-layer performance in terms of coded bit error rate, packet error rate, and throughput. The modulation and coding scheme is switched according to signal-to-noise ratio thresholds at the PHY layer. We extend the approach, proposing a framework for energy-efficient cross-layer AMC that captures the impact of both MAC layer and PHY layer parameters on the AMC switching criteria. Cross-layer designs are naturally suited to software defined radio applications. Not only are they readily implemented in software, but also they are integral to the radio components. They can optimize performance of the radio either for a given configuration or adaptively. Through an example of CSMA/CA MAC layer and WLAN physical layer, we demonstrate our AMC scheme and verify its effectiveness by simulation.

Transceiver Facility implementation for a WiMAX-like waveform (paper) (presentation)
Alejandro Sanchez (Thales Communications S. A, France); Eric Nicollet (Thales, France)

This presentation aims at providing feedback on the implementation of the Transceiver Facility version 1 on a THALES proprietary high-performance SDR platform for a WiMAX-like waveform. In the SDR arena, the Transceiver Facility is seen as a key enabler to enhance portability between waveforms and platforms by providing a common, intermediate level, interface for radio transceivers programming and control. This Facility has been selected as a foundation for the project EULER. EULER is an European cooperative project devoted to SDR and that aims, as an important goal among others, to showcase the portability of a waveform for different platforms provided by several project consortium members.

SDR OFDM waveform design for a UGV/UAV communication scenario (paper) (presentation)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Christian Bluemm (EADS Innovation Works, Germany); Christoph Heller (EADS Innovation Works, Germany); Robert Weigel (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany)

In the course of a national research project, EADS IW has developed a waveform on a self-designed hybrid Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform, consisting of an FPGA (Xilinx Virtex 5) and a GPP (Intel Atom). The waveform realizes a video link between an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) and its base station. This link is established indirectly with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) acting as a relay, in order to enable non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication and to increase the communication range. Additionally, a direct video link from the UAV to the base station is set up simultaneously as well as multiple low data rate control channels between the individual link partners. In this paper, we give an overview of the waveform, its implementation on a hybrid platform and its validation for the intended field of application.

Design Issues and Performance Evaluation of a SDR-based Reconfigurable Framework for Adaptive OFDM Transmission
Milan Zivkovic (RWTH Aachen, Germany)

Session 2A - Physical Layer Implementations

A RF Hardware Abstraction-based Methodology for Front-End Design in Software-Defined Radios (paper) (presentation)
Sabeur Lafi (École de technologie supérieure, Canada); Ammar Kouki (École de technologie supérieure, Canada); Ahmed Elzayat (École de technologie supérieure, Canada); Jean Belzile (École de technologie supérieure, Canada)

During the last decade, the development of software-defined radios (SDR) has seen a remarkable thrust. While a SDR is intended to be controlled and reconfigured using software that can be easily downloaded, setup and upgraded, it remains closely dependent from a RF front-end allowing it to transmit and receive voice, data and video. Meanwhile, RF front-ends are technology-dependent. Their performance in terms of linearity, power consumption and bit error rate, changes when the carrier frequency changes too. And SDRs intended to be multistandard radios, are particularly hindered by these properties. In fact, most of today's developments in SDR design have focused on the baseband section. But, little emphasis was placed on the radio-frequency (RF) part of radios. Despite the fact that innovative RF techniques of spectrum management, sensing and usage were investigated and new RF building block designs for SDR applications were presented, little in-depth work has been initiated in order to overcome the challenging issues and bottlenecks on the RF side.

Matrix Decomposition Algorithms for MIMO receivers: Flexibility vs. Efficiency Tradeoffs in a Library-based Tool-assisted SDR Development (paper)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Venkatesh Ramakrishnan (RWTH Aachen University, Germany); Tobias Veerkamp (RWTH Aachen University, Germany); Marc Adrat (Fraunhofer FKIE / KOM, Germany); Gerd H. Ascheid (RWTH Aachen University, Germany); Markus Antweiler (Fraunhofer FKIE, Germany)

Approach to Solve the AGC API Issue in the Tactical SDR Domain - A Waveform Provider Perspective (paper) (presentation)
Eberhard Koelble (THALES Defence & Security Systems GmbH, Germany)

In the tactical radio domain receiver frontend designs are dominated by the extraordinary requirements of up to 150 dB signal dynamic range at the antenna input caused by a peer to peer communication principle in the presence of collocated transmitters. Even with state of the art receiver technology covering such high dynamic ranges within the entire analog receiver chain from antenna input to the ADC can only be performed by appropriate dynamic compression methods. Usually this dynamic compression is implemented via combination of fast reacting and often even nested automatic gain control (AGC) loops. In conventional receiver designs the major dynamic compression is performed in the final IF band used for analog to digital conversion (ADC). This method has the advantage that in this IF stage the signal bandwidth is already limited to the instantaneous bandwidth of the waveform, i. e. signals from other transmitters operating in adjacent channels are already removed by the IF filter.

Sample Clock Offset Detection and Correction in the LTE Downlink Receiver (paper) (presentation)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Elliot Briggs (Texas Tech University, USA); Chunmei Kang (Innovative Integration, Inc., USA); Amit Mane (Innovative Integration, USA); Dan McLane (Innovative Integration, Inc., USA); Brian Nutter (Texas Tech University, USA)

The narrow subcarrier spacing and wide bandwidth arrangement in the LTE downlink produce a vulnerability to sample clock mismatch between the transmitting and receiving data converters. Without two high precision clocks, a high level of inter-carrier interference (ICI) is introduced, yielding undesirable performance. In this paper, a method to jointly estimate and correct sampling frequency mismatch and FFT window timing is proposed. The proposed method operates strictly in the time domain and does not require the aid of pilot symbols or other frequency domain information. The method allows clocks with lower precision to be used with minimal performance degradation. Results are presented using MATLAB simulation as well as an FPGA hardware implementation.

Session 2B - CR and DSA Applications

Bringing Android to Secure Software Defined Radios (presentation)
Dave Kleidermac (Green Hills Software, USA)

With the advent of multicore and hypervisor-enabled mobile SoCs, mobile devices and SDRs can now keep pace with the latest commercial mobile software initiatives such as Google Android while reducing costs and meeting the most stringent security requirements. In addition to the hardware advances, this goal is made possible with software technologies and architectures that include a layered approach to virtualization using a Multiple Independent Levels of Security (MILS) separation kernel and its high-assurance partitioning policies.

Reconfigurable Radio System in Public Safety: New Generation Public Safety ICT (paper) (presentation)
Fabrizio Vergari (Selex - Communications, Italy)

Reconfigurable Radio Systems is a subject which is becoming more and more interesting in that represents an affordable and effective solution to integrate the applications for first responders on Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR). These End Users are more and more involved in operations of protection to people environment and properties and they address a large number of threats both natural and man-made, acts of terrorism, technological, radiological or environmental accidents. In this presentation, we identify and describe the most significant challenges and the most promising wireless communication technologies in this area. In particular we focus on the target of interoperability and broadband connectivity in Europe, which are currently the main concerns by Public Safety organizations. This paper describes the evolution of the existing technological standards, innovative solutions and related regulatory activities. The paper explains the specific operational conditions and the related main features, the reasons to adopt reconfigurable architectures and the level to apply reconfiguration on network components as well and, finally the structure and components of an applicable Business Model is proposed.

Recovering Communications after Large Disasters (paper) (presentation)
Daniel Devasirvatham (SAIC, USA)

The awesome power of large natural disasters or man-made incidents could compromise civilian and emergency communications over a large area. Traditional techniques concentrate on building stronger terrestrial infrastructure to withstand such events; but these are often overcome. Satellites are used as back-up or for emergency communications recovery. However, these may not have sufficient spatial capacity to serve a large concentrated user base, and users may not have sufficient terminals to use them or be conversant with their use in an emergency. Consequently, command, communications, control, and situation awareness are compromised. This results in inadequate response and sometimes overly optimistic assessments by state and federal authorities. This paper identifies both the space and airborne layers as two important elements to the recovery of terrestrial layer communications. It proposes an integrated approach to communications recovery using all these resources to provide increasing communications capacity in stages as the event passes. Most importantly, it provides replacement infrastructure facilities to permit the normal terminals that emergency responders use to be quickly re-enabled.

Improved coexistence between multiple cognitive tactical radio networks by an expert rule based on sub-channel selection (paper) (presentation)
Vincent Le Nir (Royal Military Academy, Belgium); Bart Scheers (Royal Military Academy, Belgium)

In this paper, we study the convergence behavior of the coexistence between multiple cognitive tactical radio networks. Each tactical radio network has one transmitter broadcasting a common information to several receivers and sharing the same parallel sub-channels. For instance, parallel sub-channels represent multiple orthogonal sub-carriers as used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), or multiple non-overlapping sub-channels as used in FDM. Each terminal is equipped with a spectrum sensing function to detect the spectrum holes and a dynamic spectrum management function to find the minimum transmit power satisfying a common target data rate.

Session 3A- SDR Platforms

A commercial IP platform optimised for low-power handheld wireless soft modems (presentation)
Gordon Aspin (Cognovo Ltd, United Kingdom); Pascal Herczog (Cognovo Ltd, United Kingdom)

In this presentation we describe Cognovo's heterogeneous multi-core approach to providing a low-power scalable architecture for commercial soft modem platforms. The presentation will describe the key features of the Cognovo architecture and the benefits of the chosen approach, together with performance results from a typical 4G cellular handheld application. The software development methodology in the heterogeneous multi-core environment will be described with particular reference to efficient scheduling and mapping of tasks onto individual cores including real-world MIPS, memory and latency constraints. The Cognovo Modem Compute Engine is a commercially available soft modem IP platform optimised for low-power handheld wireless modems.

Power modeling of wide-SIMD baseband processor datapath for different clock frequencies (paper)
Martin Palkovic (IMEC, Belgium); Bart Vanhoof (IMEC, Belgium); Matthias Hartmann (IMEC, Belgium); Tom Vander Aa (IMEC, Belgium); Antoine Dejonghe (IMEC, Belgium); Liesbet Van der Perre (IMEC, Belgium)

In Software-Defined Radio (SDR) domain, the energy consumption is a key aspect. However, the energy consumption is usually determined only during gate-level simulation, when the processor is designed and the application is mapped. This is especially true for dynamic reconfigurable coarse-grain array (CGA) processors used in the SDR where to our knowledge no energy modeling exists above the gate-level. In our contribution we propose a flow how to obtain the energy numbers for opcode activation on different functional units for different clock frequencies. Then we integrate the developed model into an instruction set simulator (ISS) to evaluate energy consumption for the given application for different clock frequencies. The results allow us to obtain global picture for different frequencies before the processor is fully synthesized and evaluate full applications at the ISS level from the energy perspective already during mapping process. Compared to our previous work, we obtain the energy per opcode by simulation of the different heterogeneous functional units (FUs) using gate-level simulations of physically synthesized FU. Also, we demonstrate our approach on the wide-SIMD (256b) heterogeneous multi-threaded instance and state-of-the-art WLAN 4x4 40MHz application we mapped onto that instance.

Dynamic reconfiguration technologies based on FPGA in software defined radio system (paper) (presentation)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Ke He (University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom)

Partial Reconfiguration (PR) is a method for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) designs which allows multiple applications to time-share a portion of an FPGA while the rest continues to operate unaffected. As a result, the physical layer processing architecture in Software Defined Radio (SDR) systems can benefit from reduced complexity and increased design flexibility, as different waveform applications can be grouped into one part of a single FPGA. Waveform switching often means not only changing functionality, but also changing the FPGA clock frequency. However, that is beyond the current functionality of Xilinx-based PR as the clock components such as Digital Clock Managers (DCMs) are excluded from the process of partial reconfiguration. In this paper, we present a novel architecture that combines another reconfigurable technology, Dynamic Reconfigurable Port (DRP), with PR based on a single FPGA in order to dynamically change both functionality and clock frequency with ease. The architecture is demonstrated to reduce hardware utilization significantly compared with standard, static FPGA design. The results presented are based on the Xilinx ISE 12.4 design suite and the Xilinx Virtex-5 LX110T device.

High Performance Interfacing Between an OMAP3 and an FPGA (presentation)
Philip Balister (OpenSDR, USA)

The presentation will cover the design and implementation of the FPGA to OMAP3 interface on the USRP E100. Since the driver and FPGA code are available as open source, a discussion of how the interface works will be very useful for the larger SDR community. The presentation will focus on how the driver differs from traditional Linux device drivers. The key feature is the memory mapped ring buffer that provides a zero copy to user space API for the SDR application.

Session 3B - CR and DSA Architectures and Systems

Overview of learning and decision making techniques for cognitive radio equipment (paper) (presentation)
Wassim Jouini (Supélec, France); Christophe Moy (SUPELEC/IETR, France); Jacques Palicot (IETR/Supélec, France)

Research on cognitive radio (CR) networks does not usually consider whether there exists or not cognitive radio equipment with the necessary capabilities to support cognitive features. These features consist on the one hand in flexible properties as studied in the Software-Defined Radio (SDR) field, and on the other hand on embedded learning and decision making facilities in the equipment. We propose to focus on this latter point and present an overview on the advances in terms of learning and decision making facilities for cognitive radio equipment. It is important to notice that many cognitive use-cases have to be considered in CR equipment, from dynamic spectrum access (DSA) to dynamic configuration adaption (DCA), and for many possible different objectives: optimize spectrum access, decrease electromagnetic radiations, improve batteries life, minimize communication cost, etc. When designing such CR equipment the main challenge is to find an appropriate way to correctly dimension its cognitive abilities according to its environment as well as to its purpose (i.e., providing a certain service to the user). Several papers in the literature have already been concerned by this matter however their description of the problem usually remained fuzzy. We summarize their analysis by defining three "constraints" on which the design of CR equipment depends.

An assessment of costs and benefits of an ontology and policy based cognitive radio (paper)
Shujun Rachel Li (Northeastern University, USA); Mieczyslaw Kokar (Northeastern University, USA); Jakub Moskal (Northeastern University, USA)

Due to the growing complexity and heterogeneity of communication networks, awareness and adaptation become the most critical requirements in cognitive radios. Ontology-based radio (OBR), which integrates ontology, policy-based radio control and logical reasoning, has shown the potential to fulfill the awareness and adaptation requirements. In this paper, we will discuss how much benefit we can get from the use of the OBR approach and how much overhead it imposes on the communication link. In general, we will assess the OBR approach in the following three aspects: (1) how much implicit knowledge the radio can infer locally, (2) how much improvement (value) can this implicit knowledge bring to the optimization goal, (3) what is the communication overhead due to the exchange of control knowledge in terms of spectrum efficiency and time delay?

A Transmit Beamforming Technique for MIMO Cognitive Radios (paper) (presentation)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Luca Bixio (University of Genoa, Italy); Lorenzo Ciardelli (University of Genova, Italy); Marina Ottonello (University of Genoa, Italy); Mirco Raffetto (University of Genoa, Italy); Carlo S Regazzoni (University Of Genova, Italy);SK. S. Alam (University of Genoa), Claudio Armani (SELEX Communications, Italy)

In the present paper one of the main problems of cognitive radios, that is how to allow the secondary (cognitive) users to exploit the unused resources by primary users, is faced by introducing multiple antennas at the cognitive terminals. Under the assumption of perfect channel state information (CSI), a transmit beamforming scheme based on a linear algorithm is proposed for the exploitation of the degrees of freedom offered by the spatial diversity. A closed form expression for the achievable rate obtainable by employing two antennas is derived and numerical results regarding the effects of different fading channels are provided.

An Over-the-Air Reconfiguration API for Experimental Cognitive Radio Setups (paper) (presentation)
Moritz Fischer (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany); Martin Braun (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany); Jens P. Elsner (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany); Friedrich K. Jondral (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany)

We present a software solution for over-the-air reconfiguration of remote software radio terminals using the free GNU Radio toolkit, facilitating the development of Cognitive Radio applications. The modular architecture allows for separating the cognitive engine from the signal processing algorithms, thus allowing fast implementation, verification and easier testing.

Par4CR: The development of a new SDR-based platform towards Cognitive Radio (paper) (presentation)
Olga Zlydareva (Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands); Rob Mestrom (Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands); Martha Suarez (ITE, Poland); Fabian Riviere (NXP Semiconductors, France)

Today, Software Defined and Cognitive Radios have become the most attractive topics in the wireless communications arena due to their ability to support the coexistence of many communication standards inside a single device while providing a highly flexible system that is seamlessly reconfigurable and adjustable in order to adapt to a changeable environment. Par4CR project is the European Cooperation Program between seven partners for the Industry - Academia knowledge exchange. The purpose of this research activity is to analyze deeply the current situation on the Software Defined Radio (SDR) from the physical layer point of view and to investigate the impact of recent and future technologies in the materials, elements and system areas in order to increase a chance of the smooth transfer from SDR to Cognitive Radio (CR). A new system architecture for the SDR platform has been identified and presented with the main accent on the multi-standard RF front-end as the one of the most challenging parts towards CR development. Moreover, the multi-mode antenna design with possibility to cover commercial frequency range from 50 MHz to 6 GHz is discussed. After that, the digital signal processing part as the one of the system building blocks that can relax the load to the RF part is considered via simulations in Matlab. At the end, the future technologies that can contribute to the seamless evolutionary path towards CR are covered.

Session 4A - Mapping to SDR Platforms

OQPSK cognitive modulator fully FPGA-implemented via dynamic partial reconfiguration and rapid prototyping tools (paper) (presentation)
Raúl Torrego (IKERLAN Technological Research Center, Spain); Iñaki Val (IKERLAN Technological Research Center, Spain); Eñaut Muxika (University of Mondragon, Spain)

Software Defined Radios (SDR) and Cognitive Radios, their evolution provided with the ability of making decisions about their operating behaviour, have emerged as the key technology for implementing wireless communication systems in the future, due to their versatility and to the size and power consumption save they obtain. This paper presents a small form factor OQPSK modulator able to change its IF (intermediate frequency) working frequency depending on the availability of the transmission channel. It is fully implemented on an FPGA using dynamic partial reconfiguration to achieve the frequency change, the internal ICAP configuration port to access FPGA's configuration memory and an embedded uBlaze processor in charge of managing the whole system. Those parts of the modulator requiring digital signal processing have been carried out with Xilinx's rapid prototyping tool System Generator in order to ease their development.

Code Parallelization for Multi-Core Software Defined Radio Platforms with OpenMP (paper) (presentation)
Michael Schwall (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany); Stefan Nagel (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany); Friedrich K. Jondral (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany)

Since the number of processing cores in a General Purpose Processor (GPP) increases steadily, parallelization of algorithms is a well known topic in computer science. Algorithms have to be adapted to this new system architecture to fully exploit the available processing power. This development equally affects the Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology because the GPP has become an important alternative hardware solution for SDR platforms. To make use of the entire processing power of a multi-core GPP and hence to avoid system inefficiency, this paper provides an approach to parallelize C/C++ code using OpenMP. This application programming interface (API) provides a rapid way to parallelize code using compiler directives inserted at appropriate positions in the code. The processing load is shared with all cores. We use Matlab Simulink as a framework for a model-based design and evaluate the processing gain of embedded handwritten C/C++ code blocks with OpenMP support. We will show that with OpenMP the core utilization is increased.

Adapting a SDR environment to GPU architectures (paper) (presentation)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Pierre-Henri Horrein (CEA, LETI, Minatec, France); Christine Hennebert (CEA, LETI, Minatec, France); Frédéric Pétrot (TIMA, France)

This article studies different solutions to use the Graphics Processing Units computing power for the Software Defined Radio environment GNURadio. Two main solutions are considered. In a first implementation, which has already been studied, the GPU is only considered as a fast additional processor, with specific algorithms implemented. In a second implementation, the specific characteristics of the GPU are taken into account, and the environment runtime is redesigned to accommodate for the presence of the GPU. Instead of using GPU optimized algorithms, this second solution uses classical algorithms on multiple arrays. Both solutions are implemented and compared on different operation types, and on a complete operation sequence. It is clearly shown that using the second solution can provide performance improvement, while the first one is inefficient for SDR applications.

Component Based Approach for SDR waveform development on DSP targets (paper) (presentation)
Laurent Poyart (Thalès Communications, France); Thomas Derive (Thalès Communications, France); Eric Nicollet (Thales, France)

This abstract introduces a global Component Based Approach defined to address GPP and DSP software engineering in SCA-compliant SDR systems.

Session 4B - White Space and the Future of Database Driven Technology

A TV white-spaces wireless network architecture for efficient spectrum sharing in Europe, and its applicability for Public Safety applications (paper)
Damien Lavaux (Thales Communications, France); Hervé Aiache (Thales Communications, France); Stephane Rousseau (THALES Communications, France)

Sustainability of Business Ecosystems for Next Generation Cognitive Networks (paper) (presentation)
Anand Kishore Raju (IBBT, Belgium); Simon Delaere (IBBT-SMIT, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium); Sven Lindmark (IBBT, Belgium); Gerasimos Stamatelatos (University of Athens, Greece); Pieter Ballon (Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium)

This paper analyzes the viability and sustainability of business ecosystems for next generation self-growing, reconfigurable, and energy-aware networks. Focus is placed on how inter- actor relationships in business ecosystems can affect and act as barriers for commercial success of energy efficient solutions. For this, the paper combines a multi-actor framework (MACTOR) with a Business Model approach. The paper examines the business ecosystem of a new self-growing and energy efficient technology – CONSERN. The main actors, their balance of power, and convergence and divergence with respect to strategic positions are analyzed and visualized using the MACTOR framework. From this, implications for key actors, their relationships and the viability of the business ecosystem are derived.

Requirements for a CR-system - Challenges compared to conventional wireless technology (paper) (presentation)
Per H. Lehne (Telenor Corporate Development, Norway); Dominique Noguet (CEA LETI, France); Rohit Datta (TU Dresden, Germany); Ulrico Celentano (University of Oulu, Finland); Vincent Mérat (NEC, France); Philippe Delahaye (NEC, France); Gerhard Fettweis (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)

Cognitive Radio (CR) technology is a promising enabler towards a more efficient and dynamic use of the frequency spectrum. Since 2008, we have seen new regulatory initiatives, e.g. in the US, allowing opportunistic use of available spectrum in the UHF band, the so-called TV whitespace (TVWS). The success of a CR system depends on being able to provide competitive services in the wireless market, therefore, a CR system must be designed according to requirements which meets these challenges. This paper will show how requirements for a CR-system can be set up and refined, highlighting the special challenges and opportunities that flexible CR-systems face when competing with conventional licence based wireless technology.

Workshop 4C - Evolution of International SDR SCA standards (comprehensive presentations)

SCA Next Update
Terry L. Anderson (ITT)

SCA Next Update - SCA Next Specification Draft Overview
Joint Program Executive Office, Joint Tactical Radio System

SCA Next Update - Lightweight Components
Joint Program Executive Office, Joint Tactical Radio System

SCA Next Update - Deployment Optimizations - Push Model Registration
Joint Program Executive Office, Joint Tactical Radio System

SCA Next Update - CORBA Neutral Representation
Joint Program Executive Office, Joint Tactical Radio System

SCA Next Update - SCA Profiles
Joint Program Executive Office, Joint Tactical Radio System

Workshop 4D and 5D - Mobile VCE Workshop on Green Radio

ICT-SACRA Green Radio and Energy Efficiency (presentation)
Stephanie Leveil (Thales Communications, France)

C2POWER: Cognitive radio and Cooperative strategies for POWER saving in multi-standard mobile terminals (presentation)
Jonathan Rodriguez (Instituto de Telecomunicações Aveiro, Portugal); Paulo Marques (Instituto de Telecomunicações Aveiro, Portugal)

Energy Savings through Site Renewal in an HSPA/LTE Network Evolution Scenario (paper) (presentation)
Gilbert Micallef (Aalborg University, Denmark); Preben Mogensen (Nokia Siemens Networks, Denmark); Hans-Otto Scheck (Nokia Siemens Networks, Sweden)

Reducing Energy Consumption in Future Broadband Wireless Networks through a Hierarchical Architecture (paper) (presentation)
Aizat Ramli (University of York, UK); David Grace(University of York, UK)

PAPR and the Cubic Metric for Low PA Power consumption (paper) (presentation)
Terence Dodgson (Nokia Siemens Networks, UK); Yanyan Wu (Liverpool University, China); Xi'an Jiaotong (Liverpool University, China)

Energy Efficiency of Relay deployment in LTE-Advanced (paper)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Chadi Khirallah (The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom);John Thompson(University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

Energy Saving Techniques in Layered Structure of LTE Systems (not available)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Tao Chen (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland);Ilkka S. Harjula(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland);Markku Kiviranta(VTT Electronics, Finland)

Joint Optimal Power Allocation and Relay Selection with Spatial Diversity in Wireless Relay Networks (paper) (presentation)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems)
Md H Islam (École de technologie supérieure, Canada);Zbigniew Dziong(École de technologie supérieure, Canada);Kazem Sohraby(University of Arkansas, USA);Mahmoud Daneshmand(AT&T, USA);Rittwik Jana(AT&T Labs Research, USA)

Session 5A - SDR Systems

Model-based SDR Development Across Heterogeneous Processors (not available)
Vincent J Kovarik (Prismtech, USA); Andrew Foster (Prismtech, United Kingdom); Mike Williams (Zeligsoft, Canada)

Seamless Dynamic Runtime Reconfiguration in a Software-Defined Radio (paper) (presentation)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems) 
Michael L Dickens (University of Notre Dame, USA); J. Nicholas Laneman (University of Notre Dame, USA); Brian Dunn (University of Notre Dame, USA)

We discuss implementation aspects of a software-defined radio system that allows for dynamic waveform reconfiguration during runtime without interrupting data-flow processing. Traditional software-defined radio systems execute a waveform statically, exactly as it is programmed. Reconfiguration is provided by executing a different waveform, which requires the system to stop processing data while reconfiguration occurs, and also may incur an unacceptable delay for some applications. Recent research has demonstrated basic reconfiguration by programming multiple branches into a waveform and dynamically switching between branches. This technique requires redundant resources and in general cannot be expanded to encompass all possible waveforms of interest, but, if implemented carefully, could be made to seamlessly process data. We propose a system that allows for dynamic insertion and removal of entire waveforms, individual constituent blocks, and block algorithm implementations tailored to specific processors.

Fairwaves - an open-source software for commercial wireless air interfaces (presentation)
Alexander Chemeris (Fairwaves LLC, Russia); Sergey Portnoy (Fairwaves LLC, Russia)

We will present our vision about Open-Source Software place in wireless air interfaces and our approach to make this vision real developing Open-Source framework for wireless air interfaces. Open-Source Software is widely used in education, research, ham-radio and prototyping, but has very little use in commercial applications. We believe that with the right approach Open-Source Software can find its way into commercial applications and make them safer, cheaper and more diverse. We believe that Open-Source Software will help to raise level of innovation in this area. We will also publicly announce our current project under Fairwaves umbrella, where we develop open-source WiMAX receiver. We invite everyone to discussion about perspectives of Open-Source in wireless innovation and the ways to get it right.

Session 6A - Physical Layer Implementation II

European software defined radio for wireless in joint security operations (presentation)
Bruno Calvet (THALES Communications, France); Jean-Julien Sabiani (THALES Communications, France); Timo Braysy (University of Oulu, Finland)

The proposed agenda for EULER presentation could be: 1.Introduction EULER is a three-year collaborative IP research project funded by FP7 security initiative of the European Commission. The project started in March 2009. The consortium carrying out the EULER project is made up of major industrial partners and leading academic research institutes, supported by a group of European representatives end-user organizations. 2.Objectives - Propose a new high data rate waveform supporting the complex requirements of security forces joint operatiion - Address interoperability by defining how SDR capabilities can be integrated in a security (P&GS) communication system o Implement high data rate capable SDR platforms o with seperation of roles between SDR platform and SDR waveform providers 3.Anticipated EULER final demonstration Demonstration of SDR interoperability in a civil crisis situation based on: o A wireless backbone composed of different SDR paltforms o Current and/or legacy P&GS networks (TETRA COTS, WiMax COTS, satellite link) deployed on crisis area 4.Current status To be updated for June 2011 presentation

Utilising the Latest IP Technology for FPGAs to Achieve SDR Architectural Consistency (presentation)
Andrew Foster (PrismTech Limited, United Kingdom)

FPGAs are widely used in Software Defined Radios to implement physical layer processing functions. They provide high performance custom solutions in support of the latest generation of reconfigurable radio systems and have historically been considered part of the modem hardware rather than part of the radio's software architecture. This has meant that any software control layer provided by the industry's leading standards such as the Software Communication Architecture (SCA) have largely ignored issues that SDR developers and platform providers must deal with in order to utilise FPGAs, in particular the specification and configuration of inter component communication interfaces and the use of custom transports. The presentation will discuss recent Joint Industry work to design and implement a second generation high speed protocol core based on CORBA's General Inter-ORB Protocol (GIOP) for use specifically with FPGAs. The objective of this work is to provide an efficient, portable and architectural consistent way of utilising the processing power provided by FPGAs in SDR applications by facilitating a standard way of supporting SCA compliant waveform development and deployment even in a hardware environment such as an FPGA.

Session 6B - Spectrum Sensing

Sensing Users' Temporal Behavior in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Wideband Chirp Signal (paper) (presentation)
Ahmed Barnawi (King Abdul-Aziz Uniersity, Saudi Arabia)

Sensing the radio environment is the most important and challenging role played by the cognitive radio user. In related work, we have introduced a novel approach for sensing the frequency using wideband chirp signal. In this paper, we utilize the inherent characteristics of the chirp signal to sense the temporal (time related) behavior of primary users. Our method shows promising results in terms of accuracy and complexity.

Oriented processing of Communication signals for Sensing applications (paper) (presentation)
François Delaveau (Thales Communications, France)

This presentation aims at providing elements on the implementation of oriented processing facilities in order to improve sensing applications within SDR and CR. The sensing needs and constraints relevant to civilian applications will be briefly discussed in this paper. Actual trends to disseminated spectrum monitoring capabilities and relevant needs will be introduced. The advantage of oriented processing, when available, will be deepened. Then, a synthesis upon oriented processing will be performed by describing the nature of a priori information that should be available, the different classes of algorithms depending on modulation types, the order of range of relevant performances and complexities and the perspectives for terminal embedded implantations. The paper will then conclude on perspectives for answering the needs of sensing within CR networks, and for answering the needs of disseminated spectrum monitoring.

A Performance Comparison of Different Spectrum Sensing Techniques (presentation)
Christoph Heller (EADS Innovation Works, Germany); Stefan Bouckaert (Ghent University - IBBT, Belgium); Ingrid Moerman (Ghent University, Belgium); Sofie Pollin (IMEC / UC Berkeley, USA); Peter Van Wesemael (IMEC, Belgium); Danny Finn (Dublin University, Trinity College, Ireland); Daniel Willkomm (Technische Universitaet Berlin, Germany); Jan-Hinrich Hauer (Technical University of Berlin, Germany)

In this work we present a set of experiments that have been carried out in the scope of the CREW project to evaluate and compare different spectrum sensing approaches. The FP7 project CREW ( targets the development of a federated testbed for cognitive radio systems by physically and virtually interconnecting radio equipment of the individual project partners, each focusing on specific aspects related to cognitive networking. The testbeds that are part of the CREW federation can be used to focus on robust cognitive networking, coexistence in the unlicensed bands, vertical sharing in the licensed cellular bands or opportunistic usage in the licensed TV bands. Each of these usage scenarios is very diverse in terms of cognitive networking solutions, spectrum environment characteristics and hence also sensing requirements. By combining sensing solutions from each of those scenarios, it becomes possible to make a cross-platform study of the use of sensing, and the usefulness of various sensing solutions that range from inexpensive off-the-shelf solutions, to expensive monitoring equipment, to dedicated sensing equipment developed by the CREW consortium.

On the Optimal Cell Size in a Sensor Network Aided Cognitive Radio System (paper) (presentation)
(Selected as a top paper, being considered for publication in (VLSI) Journal of Signal Processing Systems) 
Pål R Grønsund (Telenor, Norway); Ole Grøndalen (Telenor, Norway)

To exploit spectrum resources on a secondary basis, a Sensor Network Aided Cognitive Radio Network uses a wireless sensor network that assists a secondary cognitive radio network by providing information about the current primary spectrum occupancy. In this paper we aim to find the optimal cell size for the secondary network that exploits spectrum holes identified by the wireless sensor network. The secondary base station is deployed co-located with a mobile primary network that uses a cellular reuse pattern with seven frequencies. Performance of the secondary system and impact on the primary system is mainly studied in terms of throughput, packet loss and coverage when using spectrum holes in the space, time and frequency domains. Especially, we find that the cell size and configured transmit powers for the secondary system is important for optimal system performance, and that smaller cell sizes and less expensive base stations for the secondary system is beneficial. The impact on primary system performance was found to be low, but that optimal tuning of the sensor network is important.

Sessions 6C and 7C - SDR and CR Programs I & II

QoSMOS: Towards managed QoS and Mobility over shared spectrum (presentation)
Michael Fitch (BT Innovation and Design); Dominique Noguet (CEA); Wolfgang Koenig (Alcatel-Lucent)

Cognitive Radio Experimentation World (CREW) (presentation)
Sofie Pollin (IMEC); Liesbet Van der Perre (IMEC)

COGEU project: Cognitive radio for an efficient sharing of TV white spaces in Europe (not available)
Dr Paulo Marques (Instituto de Telecomunicações)

Mission Defined Radio (presentation)
John T. McInnes (DSTL)

“SENDORA: design of a wireless sensor network aided cognitive radio system” (presentation)
Pål Grønsund, TELENOR  

Overview and key results of the CROWN project (not available)
Dr. Anil Shukla, Qinetiq, United Kingdom

“SECRICOM: The Impact of CR/SDR on Multi-Agency/National Crisis Management” (presentation)
Ahmed Aldabbagh, Qinetiq, United Kingdom

ETARE:Enabling technologies for SDR compliant tactical networks Mobile Ad Hoc Wideband Waveform(s) (paper) (presentation)
Beatrice Martin, Thales

Session 7A - SCA Based Waveform Implementations

SCA Based Networking Waveform Applications - Experience and Lessons Learned (presentation)
Mark Turner (Harris Corporation, USA)

The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) Software Communications Architecture (SCA) serves as a de-facto international standard defining a set of rules and protocols for military Software Defined Radio (SDR) applications. The European Secure Software Defined Radio (ESSOR) program has adopted the SCA as its base standard for SDR technology, providing diversity and leverage for SCA standards evolution. A key tenant of both the JTRS and ESSOR programs and the use of the SCA is focused on the portability of waveform applications across various radio platforms, thereby facilitating lower cost and shorter time-to-market for the deployment of increased capabilities to war-fighters, in conjunction with improved communications interoperability. This objective is of particularly critical importance for joint force and coalition actions. As the pace on the battlefield accelerates, the need for real-time information is becoming increasingly important hence the demand for development and deployment of IP based networking waveform applications for SCA based radio systems. Both the JTRS and ESSOR Programs are committed to the specification and development of IP based networking waveform applications. The SCA provides a strong foundation for the design of networking waveform applications, facilitating portability and interoperability. That said, networking waveform applications also incorporate an unprecedented level of complexity which can impact ease of use and operation.

A Model based Methodology for SCA Waveform Design Enhancing Portability: Application to the FM3TR Waveform Application (paper) (presentation)
Frédéric Le Roy (ENSTA Bretagne, France); Joel Champeau (ENSIETA, France); Jean-Philippe Delahaye (DGA-MI, France)

The SCA (Software Communications Architecture) is an software architecture developed and standardized in the JTRS (Join Tactical radio system) military program of the JPEO (Join Program Executive Office). Facing the multiplicity of the waveforms and the diversity of the platform architectures and form factors, the original aims of the SCA are to facilitate the waveform development in terms of portability and waveform deployments onto heterogeneous SDR platforms. SCA Applications are designed in form of software components. The Components are transparently connected using standardized port interface to each other via a software bus or middleware. On top of that, today, after a decade of standardization by JTRS several version of the SCA are available (SCA v2.2, SCA 2.2.2) and the standard continue to evolve with the SCA Next. Also SCA-like compliant standards are coming as ESSOR standard of the EDA, or the PIM/PSM SWRadio UML Profil of the OMG. However, the use of design methodologies as MDE (Model Driven Engineering) already successfully employed in other application domain for complex systems design will help to answer the multiple dimensions of SDR development, multiple waveform to be portable on multiple platform compliant produced in conformance with multiple standard versions. In this context, the paper will present a study of a model based methodology that aims to facilitate the SCA waveform design and development as we believe that design methodology is one of a key player for an efficient SCA waveform development.

Guidance for Sovereign SCA WF Development (presentation)
Ken Dingman (Harris Corp, USA)

Many countries are embarking on programs of developing SCA based SDRs in an effort to develop solutions that provide long term flexibility and interoperability and are based on technologies that will continue to evolve over time. Significant investments have been made on SCA based SDR's by several countries and private industry which has resulted in commercial COTS SW solutions and SCA based SDRs that are reaching a level of maturity that supports wider adoption of SCA technologies. Harris Corporation has been involved in SCA based development since the beginning of the JTRS programs being the first company to field a JTRS Certified SDR, supporting narrowband and wideband networking waveforms. Harris has developed and deployed more than 125,000 SCA compliant military SDRs that provide more than 10 different SCA based waveforms for both the domestic and foreign markets. Many of these waveforms leverage 3rd party content (such as the P25 stack provided by Etherstack) and have been ported to multiple SDR platforms. As a result of these developments, Harris has gained significant experience in the development and porting of waveforms in an SCA architecture. This presentation will provide guidance for SCA waveform development based on lessons learned and best practices Harris has developed as a result of the many years of development in this area.

Government Reference Architecture Testbed Based On OSSIE PSM (not available)
Tom Rittenbach (CERDEC US Army, USA) 

Session 7B - CR and DSA Networking and Infrastructures

Hybridizing Signals of Opportunity and Global Navigation Satellite Systems within cognitive radios (presentation)
François Delaveau (Thales Communications, France)

This presentation aims at providing elements on the implementation of hybrid location functionalities combining the exploitation of satellite navigation signals and communication signals. In the CR area, transmitter and receiver self-location capabilities may be seen as a key enabler to enhance network engineering and radio access, and for several emergency services. Conversely, within harsh environments (indoor, tunnel, urban canyon, dense forest, etc.), GNSS signal reception and establishment of terminal location may dramatically drop. Signal of opportunity received from known radio networks can thus help to re-enforce time and Doppler estimators and therefore location and navigation capabilities.

Routing pattern selection for opportunistic network management (paper) (presentation)
Michel Bourdellès (THALES, France); Stéphane Pega (THALES Communications, France)

This presentation provides first results of routing adaptation in order to enhance the communication capabilities of self-organized networks, in particular on defining topological situation communication throughput optimisation may be applied. Opportunistic networks addresses the inter networks communication between operator-governed network infrastructure and decentralized dynamic self organized networks. This communication encompasses the particular class of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) widely present on Private Mobile Radio (PMRs) and military networks configuration.

SDR Clouds - Resource Management Implications (presentation)
Vuk Marojevic (Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain); Ismael Gomez (Polytechnical University of Catalonia, Spain); Antoni Gelonch (Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain)

Today's base stations are equipped with a set of heterogeneous processing devices, including application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), general-purpose processors (GPPs), digital signal processors (DSPs), and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Each device typically executes a set of tasks, specified at design time. The ongoing advances in radio engineering and digital signal processing, however, suggest the deployment of processor arrays and automatic resource allocation schemes capable of allocating the required computing capacity on demand for making efficient use of the shared transmission medium. The approach of considering a data center as the computing core of a base station is then a natural evolution of wireless communications: digitalization, management flexibility, and computational intensity.

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